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Compensating for others’ Rights

Compensating for Others’ Rights

Excerpted from Faqir Abdulqadr Naqshbandi’s book Tawba: Turning to Allah in Repentance

There are five basic ways by which the rights of others may be violated.

  1. Mali – pertaining to property
  2. Nafsi – pertaining to life
  • Irzi – Pertaining to honour
  1. Mahrami – Pertaining to close relations under his authority and guardianship
  2. Dini – pertaining to religion
  3. i) Examples of human rights violations which have to do with property (mali) include theft, extortion; selling by way of fraud or lying; paying counterfeit money; causing damage to someone’s property; false testimony; treachery; bribery. Tawba and getting the wronged person’s forgiveness are necessary for this type of violation even if it is a matter of one cent or a seed of grain. Violations pertaining to property that are not compensated for before death should be paid for by the wrong doer’s children, his inheritors. If this era of worldly life comes to an end with these violations pending – that is not paid for or get forgiven, the compensation will surely take place in the Akhirah (Hereafter) by bartering the wrong doer’s good deeds. If the wronged person is dead, the payment should be to his inheritors. If there are no inheritors or the wronged person is not known specifically, the payment should be to the poor people and its reward sent to the soul of the wronged person. Even if the person wronged is a non-Muslim, it is necessary to compensate (or to) please him somehow so as to get forgiveness.
  4. ii) Rights violation type ii (nafsi) pertaining to life includes a homicide or mutilation. Forgiveness and absolution from this sin requires Tawba and the guilty person submitting himself to the Wali (executor) of the murdered or mutilated person. The Wali has the choice to forgive, to make peace in return for property or to start a legal case against the offender to ensure his punishment. The Wali, however, cannot take the law to his own hand by retaliating on his own.

iii) The violation of rights by irzi (honours) include backbiting, slander, mockery and abusing. Forgiveness of these sins requires Tawba and reconciliation with the wrong person (either by compensation, by apology or pleasing him one way or the other). This type of violation does not become rectified by any form of reconciliation with the (wrong person’s) inheritors.

  1. iv) A mahrami violation are the rights involves evils perpetrated against a person by the way of his wife or children. Violating the chastity of thers’ daughters and other mahram (close) relatives requires Tawba and istighfar. If it will surely not lead to a greater fitna – widespread enmity, vengeance and or bloodshed, one should present himself before the wrong person seeking forgiveness. However, any likehood of fitna would only require pronouncing a blessing over the wronged person in his absence or giving alms on his behalf, instead of direct confrontation.
  2. v) Religious rights violation (Dini) include the refusal to teach ones relatives or household their religious responsibilities, to prevent other people from acquiring religious knowledge or from worship, or to call Muslims disbelievers or sinners. To get their forgiveness it is acceptable to offer apology, commence teaching the neglected knowledge and refrain from hindering knowledge and ibadats. Our master and the master of all ‘alams, Rasulullah (alaihi wa ahli wa sahabihi wa sallam) once declared:

‘There are three kinds of sins: the sin that will not be forgiven in the Last Judgement (Qiyamat); the sin that is not discontinued; and the sin which will be forgiven if Allahu ta’ala wishes’

The learned of the Ummah (alaihimurridwan) said:

‘The sin which will absolutely not be forgiven is shirk (disbelief of all kinds). Sins that are not discontinued until they are forgiven or compensated for are the sins which involve the violation of others rights. And the sins which will be forgiven if Allahu ta’ala wishes are the sins which is solely between the servant and His Lord without others right coming in, Allahu Subhanahu wa ta’ala knows best.’

Wise Sayings Of Hadrat Abubakr as-Siddiq (radiAllahu ‘anh)

His Exalted Words

Wisdom flow from the noble tongue of the Siddiq Akbar, Sayyidina Abubakr (radiAllahu ‘anh), like the proverbial fountain that never experiences a dry moment. Like every soul that has abandoned the world of superfluities concentrating all attention on the eternity, every statement of Sayyidina Abubakr (radiAllahu ‘anh) comes with such a potency that would melt the most able mind and enlighten the most decadent heart. As a matter of fact, Imam Junayd Baghdadi (rahimahullah) reflected on the noble proclamation of Hadrat Abubakr (radiAllahu ‘anh) about Allahu ta’ala and concluded that it is the noblest words ever mentioned regarding tawhid. The statement is:

  • I proclaim the purity of that Sublime Being (Allahu ta’ala) who left no path for his creation to recognize Him except that they are incapable of truly recognizing Him.

Among his countless words of wisdom are:

  • I take an oath by Allah’s most Gracious name that I never desired the Khilafa, nor did I ever ask for it from Allahu ta’ala, neither openly nor in privacy.
  • When a believer tastes Allah’s love he then finds no time to pursue the finishing things of Dunya, and he becomes estranged from people.
  • One day, Sayyidina Abubakr (radiAllahu ‘anh) saw a bird moving around freely on a tree and he (radiAllahu ‘anh) addressed it saying:

O free bird!

How fortunate you are

I swear by Allah’s name that my heart desire your maqam (station)

You move about freely perching on any tree you like

You eat whatever you like of fruits, grains or leaves

All without any accounting or punishment ahead of you

How I wish to be a tree by the road side so that a camel pass by me, eat of me and I turn to mere dung

How I wish I am not a human destined to be questioned before a Lord strict, All Knowing and Just.

  • Once a hunted animal was brought to the noble presence of Sayyidina Abubakr (radiAllahu ‘anh), he looked at the animal with mercy saying:

Whenever an animal is killed or any tree is cut, it is for the fact that it has failed to discharge his duty of zikr or Allah’s praises for that day.

  • Sayyidina ‘Anas bn Malik (radiAllahu ‘anh) said that the Siddiq Akbar (radiAllahu ‘anh) would discuss the origin of man in his sermon asking:

What is the source of this pride and vain-glory in man who has passed through impure places twice; he passed through the path of urine in his father and also from his mother.’ This statement would bring so much reflections that those who were listening would consider themselves impure.

  • We have found greatness in taqwa, prosperity in Yaqin (conviction) and honours in humility.
  • Beware, lest you despise any Muslim. The lowest Muslim is also great in the sight of Allahu ta’ala.
  • Being steadfast on honesty and beautiful deeds will lead you to Jannat, while lying and evil deeds will end you in Hell fire.
  • In one of his greatly moving sermons, Sayyidina Abubakr (radiAllahu ‘anh) rhetorically asked:

Where are those charming young men always taking pride of their youths?

Where are those famous kings conquering lands upon lands?

Where are the brave warriors ever victorious far and near?

Time has destroyed them and decaying, they lie in the darkness of the grave.

  • Servant of Allah! Be careful, do not sever relationship. Avoid malice and do away with envy. Live like brothers (forgiving, overlooking, loving and sharing) as Allahu ta’ala has commanded you.

He (radiAllahu ‘anh) also declared:

  • He who enters the grave without any provisions is as if he wishes to sail on the sea without a ship.
  • It is futile to hope for three things by merely hanging on three means; wealth with means of hope, youth with the means of dyeing (the hair) and health with only medication.
  • Darkness is of five types and its lamps are also five:
  1. Love for the worldly is darkness and its lamp is taqwa (piety)
  2. Sinning is darkness and its lamp is sincere Tawba
  • The grave is darkness and its lamp is La ilaha illallah Muhammadur-Rasulullah
  1. The Hereafter is darkness and its light is righteous deeds
  2. The bridge of sirat is darkness and its light is yaqin (conviction, certitude).

The Siddiq Akbar (radiAllahu ‘anh) also gave an insightful bayan saying:

Iblis is standing in front of you, your ego (the nafs) is on your right, your desire is on your left, Dunya is behind you, your limbs and senses are around you, and the Omnipotent (Allahu ta’ala) is ‘above’ you.

  • Iblis (the accursed) calls you to leave the religion.
  • The nafs encourages you to disobedience.
  • Desire goads you to fulfill your passion.
  • Dunya entices you so that it is preferred to the life eternal.
  • Your limbs and senses take you towards sins while
  • The omnipotent Lord, Allahu ta’ala calls you towards Paradise and forgiveness.
  • The one who respond to Iblis loses his religion.
  • The one who respond to the ego (the nafs) ruins his soul.
  • The one who respond to desire loses his intellect.
  • The one who respond to Dunya loses his Hereafter.
  • And one who responds to his limbs and senses is deprived of Jannat.
  • While the one who responds to Allahu ta’ala will give up all his sins and vices acquiring all kinds of goodness.

He (radiAllahu ‘anh) also said:

  • There are eight things which adorn, beautifies eight other things:
  1. Chastity is the adornment for poverty
  2. Gratitude is the adornment for blessing
  • Patience is the adornment for calamity
  1. Gentleness is the adornment for knowledge
  2. Humility is the adornment for the learners
  3. Weeping is the adornment of taqwa
  • Giving up boasting is the adornment of sadaqah, and
  • Calmness and inner concentration (khushu) is the adornment of salat.

 

  • Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Hakim (radiAllahu ‘anh) mentioned that Sayyidina Abubakr (radiAllahu ‘anh) delivered a moving sermon which include the following exhortations:

O people! I advise you to fear Allah. That you praise Him as He deserves to be praised. You should always have hope and fear in you. When supplicating to Allah, you should also beseech Him. See how Allahu ta’ala praised Zakariyya (alaihi ‘s-salam) and his family:

“They used to hasten towards good deeds and supplicate to Us with hope and fear. And they were subservient to Us.” (21:90)

O servants of Allah! You should fully understand that Allahu ta’ala has purchased your lives and has taken a covenant from you in this regard. In exchange for this fleeting and paltry worldly life, He has promised you the eternal and abundant bounties of Paradise.

The Book of Allah is present amongst you. Its extraordinary facts will never come to an end. Its light will never be extinguished. You should therefore believe in the Book of Allah and continue taking admonishment from it. And acquire eyesight from it in preparation for the dark day (the final hour). Allahu ta’ala created you solely for His worship. He has appointed certain angels over you to record your deeds. They know all that you do.

O servant of Allah! You are going closer to that appointed time (the final hour) every day and night (i.e. each moment is taking you closer to the resurrection). Knowledge of this final hour is concealed from you. Therefore, if you can, you should do such that you die in a state that you are engaged in the service of Allahu ta’ala. However, you cannot do this without the help of Allahu ta’ala. (You should therefore seek His help).

O people! You should hasten towards good in all the respite that you have been given in your life. You should do this before your life comes to an end and before you have to face the consequences of your evil deeds. Some people have spent their lives for others (apart from Allah) and devoted their lives to them. I prohibit you from doing so.”

 

His Guiding Words, Invaluable Advises

Hadrat Abubakr Siddiq (radiAllahu ‘anh) was known for his eloquence and heart-purifying sayings. He once advised Hadrat Khalid bn Walid (radiAllahu ‘anh):

Try to run away from greatness and greatness will follow you. Seek death and life will be conferred on you’.

He (radiAllahu ‘anh) formalized the code of conducts for the soldiers of Islam army making the Islamic defenders humane personalities holding on to such amazing etiquettes that put western army, modern and ancient, to shame. He instructed all his forces before their departure saying:

Do not commit misappropriations; do not deceive anybody; do not disobey your leader, do not mutilate human bodies; do not kill old men, women or children; do not cut down fruit-bearing trees nor burn them; do not slaughter animals except for food; do not molest Christian priests, and do not forget Allah for His favours that you have enjoyed’.

Whenever he appointed any public officers, he advised them after giving them their schedule of duties:

Fear Allah openly and secretly. Whosoever fears Allah, He provides him sustenance from such sources which he never expected. Whosoever fears Allah, He forgives his sins and gives him double reward. Verily, to wish good for the people is a great act of piety. You are on such a way that you may go beyond the boundary of Islam easily. Stick to the prescription of Sharia and it will save you from all evils’.

 

The Seven Emphasised Sunnats 1

Fulfilling the Neighbours’ Rights

By Shaykh Abdulqadr An-Naqshbandi Mujaddidi

Released by www.sunnahlives.com 1437 H

Bismillahi wa salatu wa salamu ‘ala Rasulillah wa ‘ala jami’il ambiyai wal-mursalin wa ‘ala ahlihi wa sahabihi ajmain, amin.

The Invaluable Hadith

The noble ‘alim and ‘arif, al-Imam ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (rahimahullah) quoted the very popular Hadith of Sayyidina Jabir ibn Abdullah al-Ansari (radiAllahu ‘anh) detailing seven great acts so emphasized in the sunnah that they almost assumed the status of the obligatory. The mercy for the worlds and the best example sent to humanity, Rasulullah, Muhammad Mustafa (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:

  • Angel Jibril (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me of the rights of the neighbors to such an extent that I thought a neighbor will be given the right to inherit from his neighbor.
  • Angel Jibril (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me of the rights of women to such an extent that I thought that divorcing them would be made haram (forbidden).
  • Angel Jibril (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me of the rights of slaves to such an extent that I thought that there would be a fixed time for their freedom.
  • Angel Jibril (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me of the use of siwak (toothstick) to such an extent that I thought that the use of siwak would be made obligatory.
  • Angel Jibril (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me of the importance of salat in Jama’ah (congregation) to such an extent that I thought that Allahu subhanahu wa ta’ala will not accept any salat except the ones done in congregation.
  • Angel Jibil (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me about standing up in the night and praying (tahajjud) to such an extent that I thought there will be no sleep during the night.

And

  • Angel Jibril (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me about the remembrance of Allahu ta’ala (zikr) that I thought there is no benefit in any speech except the zikr of Allah’s name.

 

I

Angel Jibril (alaihi ‘s-salam) used to remind me of the rights of neighbor to such an extent that I thought a neighbor will be given the right of inheritance.

Islam is called ad-Deen-i wasatiyyah because it is a religion predicated on moderation and a balance, thus giving birth to such a civilization, so egalitarian, that history has never produced its like. This great Deen fundamentally gives so much rights to others outside the realm of Islam and sometimes commend Muslims to see humanity from the adamic angle; we are all from the same origin, we may have our differences in belief and conducts, what we share in common are also integral to our peaceful existence as a wider community on the earth. Our differences should be opportunities to demonstrate the beauty of our great religion, and our ways and actions should be nothing but invitations to the Divine and the sacred.

The uniquely endowed Deen-i Islam is always tending towards peace and peaceful co-existence. It principally demands that we fulfill the right of others without a fail and that we must be merciful and considerate enough to kindly forgive whenever our rights are trampled upon. So, neighbors, who are the most physically immediate people to us are given so many rights, and these assume so great a sacredness that one is forced to conclude that a man becomes successful with Allahu ta’ala once he is judged successful by his neighbors.

In diverse civilizations and beliefs, neighbours are taken to be the people living in the houses closest to or adjoining our own house. Our beloved Prophet (alaihi ‘s-salam), however, gave the world an understanding that was extremely baffling to the most advanced minds from the previous civilization. He (alaihi ‘s-salam) considered as neighbours all those who live in forty houses to the right, forty houses to the left, forty houses in the front and forty houses at the back. Every one living within this vicinity qualifies to be a neighbour and has great rights on us. The closer the houses are to us the more emphatic their rights are. Subhanallah! This is a Deen, a religion that is giving recognition to one hundred and sixty houses and the inhabitants as one’s neighbours deserving attention, love and respect. Continue Reading